Dec 9, 2021

Mawazo Writing Africa

Writing about the main

Drug-resistant typhoid cases rise, say scientists

Scientists warn of a “dramatic” increase in the number of multidrug-resistant typhoid, a bacterial disease spread through contaminated food, water, or close contact.

A three-year case-control study of more than 13,000 children under the age of 16 in an informal settlement in the Nairobi district found that more and more are becoming infected with the difficult-to-treat typhoid, which is a further burden on the health system.

Genomic The sequencing of stool cultures (4,670 cases of typhoid and 8,549 age-adjusted controls) showed that 97 percent were resistant to some types of widely used antibiotics. Another 76 percent (3,549) showed multi-resistant traits.

“The high rate of multi-resistant H58 S. typhi and the close phylogenetic relationship between cases and controls demonstrate the role of vectors as reservoirs for the spread of typhus in this environment, ”said the authors, headed by Samuel Kariuki, acting director general of the Kenya Medical Research Institute.

Typhoid is a bacterial infection that can lead to high fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and death. It is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi.

The infection is mainly caused by poor sanitation and lack of safe drinking water, both in urban and rural areas.

Every year The World Health Organization estimates that 11 to 20 million people get typhoid fever and between 128,000 and 161,000 people die from it worldwide.

Inadequate sanitation

However, urbanization is with that The associated overpopulation and inadequate water and sewage systems as well as climate change have the potential to further increase the global typhus burden. Increasing resistance to antibiotics makes it easier for typhoid to spread.

According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, H58 S. Typhi is resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole.

Difficult-to-treat infections (antimicrobial resistance, AMR) have become a serious public health concern for doctors and scientists around the world.

Resistance occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites change over time and become unresponsive to medications, especially antibiotics, making infections difficult to treat and increasing the risk of the spread of disease, serious illness, and death.

According to the WHO, infections are Antibiotics that are resistant could cause an estimated 10 million deaths each year by 2050.

According to one commissioned by the UK government in 2016 Given a two-year study, 700,000 people die from resistant infections every year.

Antibiotics are a special category of drugs that modern medicine as we know it: if it loses its effectiveness, important medical procedures such as gastric surgery, Caesarean sections, joint replacements and treatments that weaken the immune system, such as chemotherapy for cancer, become too dangerous.

There is little national data on deaths from AMR in Kenya, but the Ministry of Health reported more than 600,000 in 2016 Cases of tuberculosis with drug resistance.

The increasing resistance to antibiotics is mainly caused by abuse and overuse of the drugs.

Some bacteria that can cause serious illness are against the most common available antibiotics.

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which are often referred to as super bacteria, can cause infections ions of the lungs, urinary tract and skin.

These super bacteria can spread and share their antibiotic-resistant properties with healthy bacteria in a person’s body.

When an infection occurs, it is difficult, if not impossible, to treat effectively.

Between 2008 and 2011, WHO received reports that Vibrio Cholera – the bacterium that causes cholera – was resistant to cotrimoxazole, which goes by the generic name Septrin, a broad spectrum antibiotic.